The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of a hydrolyzed polysaccharide, Rice Bran Arabinoxylan Compound (RBAC), on biomarkers in adults with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A 90-day randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial examined the effect of RBAC on complete blood count, liver enzymes, lipids, oxidative stress markers, cytokines, and growth factors. Twenty-three adults with NAFLD were enrolled and randomly assigned to one of the two study conditions (n = 12 RBAC and n = 11 placebo) and consumed 1 gram/day of either compound for 90 days. Subjects were assessed at baseline and 45 and 90 days. No adverse effects were reported. Alkaline phosphatase significantly decreased (−3.1%; SD = 19.9; F[1, 19] = 5.1, p = 0.03) in the RBAC group compared to placebo. Percent monocytes (17.9%; SD = 18.3; F[1, 19] = 5.9, p = 0.02) and percent eosinophils (30.6%; SD = 30.5; F[1, 19] = 12.3, p < 0.01) increased in the RBAC group. IFN-γ (156%; SD = 131.8; F[1, 19] = 4.2, p = 0.06) and IL-18 (29.1%; SD = 64; F[1, 19] = 5.3, p = 0.03) increased in the RBAC group compared to placebo. Other improvements were noted for platelets, neutrophils, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, γ-glutamyl transferase, and 4-hydroxynonenal. RBAC had beneficial effects on several biomarkers that add to the known immunomodulatory activities of RBAC, which may be promising for people with NAFLD.